The plethora of global resource sector governance initiatives and institutions are complemented by mechanisms that are gradually evolving in Africa. As targets and recipients of global regimes of restraint, African mechanisms have attempted to borrow and incorporate global norms, standards, and strictures within the overarching framework of African responsibility captured in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Peer Review Mechanism (APRM).
Since 2008, the U.S. Congress has considered a number of measures to undercut rebel movements and other negative forces in the Eastern DRC from using the sale of tin, tantalum, and tungsten to fuel conflict in the region. Like the KP, these measures were driven by broad mobilization of civil society actors seeking a regime that would restrain rebels implicated in fuelling violent conflict and widespread human rights abuses in the Great Lakes region. The U.S.
The KPCs was crafted to address the role of diamonds in fuelling violent conflicts in Angola and Sierra Leone. Subsequently, it has targeted diamonds from other civil wars such as Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, and the DRC.
The Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI) is the most prominent norm of extractive industries transparency. Established at the World Summit for Sustainable Development in Johannesburg in 2002 at the behest of British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, EITI seeks to assist resource rich countries transform their wealth into tangible development outcomes, through improved transparency. Officially launched in 2003, the EITI is a coalition of governments, companies, civil society groups and international organizations.
The PWYP coalition of civil society actors was galvanized by a 1999 Global Witness report that highlighted the questionable role of foreign business actors in Angola’s civil war.#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title=""> Launched in 2002, the PWYP includes over 300 NGOs such as the high profile Save the Children, Revenue Watch Institute (RWI) and Transparency International (TI) and operates in over 50 countries.
As stated above, transnational norm entrepreneurs responded to the escalation of civil conflicts in Africa in the late 1990s by encouraging public and private actors in the extractive industries to strengthen the transparency-accountability relationships around the governance of natural resources. The PWYP and EITI are the most well-known initiatives that sought a plethora of best practices to ensure that income from natural resources would benefit local development.
As part of the global normative revolution, transparency regimes have been pivotal in pushing the conceptual and policy envelopes around natural resource governance. But as the critics have cautioned, these mechanisms were crafted in the celebratory contexts of external pressures on weak states perceived to be incapable of governing themselves in the face of resource abundance.
Transnational processes have spurred ideas, practices, and networks that seek solutions to new and old global problems. At the centre of these processes have been attempts to manage global problems around the economy, ecology, environment, and human rights.
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When Chibuluma mine was bought by Metorex, they inherited both the public health department and Chibuluma mine hospital. However, shortly after privatisation, the company closed the public health department which was responsible for carrying out public health activities. According to Mr Alick Banda, then Chief Health Officer, “the new investors didn’t see the need to maintain the public health function” (Interview, 8th May 2009). However, Metorex did maintain the Chibuluma mine hospital for its employees and their families and dependants.