Extractive Industries represent potential wealth for SADC’s economies, with a variety of benefits, including industrialisation through value addition to minerals, job creation, export earnings, technology and skills transfer. For most SADC countries, mineral extraction and trade are not bringing in these benefits. The problem is multidimensional and touches the entire chain of production and commercialisation — weak state institutions, insufficient knowledge on the quality and quantity of minerals; weak contract negotiation capability, corruption , weak labour, social and environmental protection, illicit financial flows, unpredictable and weak fiscal regimes, and weak community engagement and protection. There are many initiatives in the region that are involved in monitoring the behaviour of companies and governments in an effort to increase accountability and transparency in the sector across the value chain. However, there is no approach in the region that is comprehensive and continuously monitors the political economy of mining in the region. This project is an attempt to close that gap by publishing an annual SADC Mineral Governance Barometer. The Barometer will assess a number of issues including—state mining administration, contract negotiation, fiscal regimes, labour and environmental issues, social and community issues, artisanal mining, and mining closure. It will interrogate the effectiveness of the mineral and economic governance in all countries. This annual Index will measure progress and propose areas of intervention to improve mineral resource management.