The Publish What You Pay (PWYP) Coalition

The PWYP coalition of civil society actors was galvanized by a 1999 Global Witness report that highlighted the questionable role of foreign business actors in Angola’s civil war." name="_ftnref1" title="">[1] Launched in 2002, the PWYP includes over 300 NGOs such as the high profile Save the Children, Revenue Watch Institute (RWI) and Transparency International (TI) and operates in over 50 countries.


Global Regimes of Restraint

As stated above, transnational norm entrepreneurs responded to the escalation of civil conflicts in Africa in the late 1990s by encouraging public and private actors in the extractive industries to strengthen the transparency-accountability relationships around the governance of natural resources. The PWYP and EITI are the most well-known initiatives that sought a plethora of best practices to ensure that income from natural resources would benefit local development.


Toward Regimes of Responsibility

As part of the global normative revolution, transparency regimes have been pivotal in pushing the conceptual and policy envelopes around natural resource governance. But as the critics have cautioned, these mechanisms were crafted in the celebratory contexts of external pressures on weak states perceived to be incapable of governing themselves in the face of resource abundance.



Action Aid. (2008) Precious Metal,  The impact of Anglo Platinum  on poor communities in Limpopo. ActionAid South Africa

Bench Marks Foundation for Southern Africa for Corporate Social Responsibility (BeFSA CSR)  (2003)  Principles   for  Global Corporate  Responsibility:   Bench  Marks for  Measuring   Business Performance, 3rd. South Africa.

Breaking the Curse, (2009).How  Transparent Taxation  and Fair Taxes Can Turn Africa’s Mineral

Wealth into Development. Christian Aid, London


Corporate governance case studies - De Beers

The De Beers Group operates as a diamond mining company worldwide. The com- pany was founded in 1888 and is headquartered in Southdale, South Africa. De Beers was formally incorporated in Luxembourg in November 2000. It is the holding com- pany of the De Beers group. It comprises of three shareholdings: Anglo American plc with 45 percent shareholding, Central Holdings (the Oppenheimer family) with


What are Natural Resources?

Natural resources that are immedi-ately available to a community are land, clean water, trees, wildlife and clean air. However communities are becoming increasingly aware of min-erals such as gold, copper, coal, plati-num, uranium, oil and diamonds. 

Write down the natural resources available to your community 

Communities have used natural re-sources such as the land, water, trees, wildlife and air for centuries. In many cases communities have even mined minerals such as copper 


So what needs to be done?

Clearly, governments need to tackle corruption and try to ensure that policies and profits benefit all the people, not just the elite few. However, it is far too simplistic to simply affirm that corruption and a lack of transparency and accountability are solely responsible for limiting the benefits of natural resource extraction. While corruption and secrecy remain serious challenges, there is also a genuine lack of capacity within government administrations to manage the sector.


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