The PWYP coalition of civil society actors was galvanized by a 1999 Global Witness report that highlighted the questionable role of foreign business actors in Angola’s civil war.#_ftn1" name="_ftnref1" title=""> Launched in 2002, the PWYP includes over 300 NGOs such as the high profile Save the Children, Revenue Watch Institute (RWI) and Transparency International (TI) and operates in over 50 countries.
As stated above, transnational norm entrepreneurs responded to the escalation of civil conflicts in Africa in the late 1990s by encouraging public and private actors in the extractive industries to strengthen the transparency-accountability relationships around the governance of natural resources. The PWYP and EITI are the most well-known initiatives that sought a plethora of best practices to ensure that income from natural resources would benefit local development.
As part of the global normative revolution, transparency regimes have been pivotal in pushing the conceptual and policy envelopes around natural resource governance. But as the critics have cautioned, these mechanisms were crafted in the celebratory contexts of external pressures on weak states perceived to be incapable of governing themselves in the face of resource abundance.
Transnational processes have spurred ideas, practices, and networks that seek solutions to new and old global problems. At the centre of these processes have been attempts to manage global problems around the economy, ecology, environment, and human rights.
Action Aid. (2008) Precious Metal, The impact of Anglo Platinum on poor communities in Limpopo. ActionAid South Africa
Bench Marks Foundation for Southern Africa for Corporate Social Responsibility (BeFSA CSR) (2003) Principles for Global Corporate Responsibility: Bench Marks for Measuring Business Performance, 3rd. South Africa.
Breaking the Curse, (2009).How Transparent Taxation and Fair Taxes Can Turn Africa’s Mineral
Wealth into Development. Christian Aid, London
The De Beers Group operates as a diamond mining company worldwide. The com- pany was founded in 1888 and is headquartered in Southdale, South Africa. De Beers was formally incorporated in Luxembourg in November 2000. It is the holding com- pany of the De Beers group. It comprises of three shareholdings: Anglo American plc with 45 percent shareholding, Central Holdings (the Oppenheimer family) with
Natural resources that are immedi-ately available to a community are land, clean water, trees, wildlife and clean air. However communities are becoming increasingly aware of min-erals such as gold, copper, coal, plati-num, uranium, oil and diamonds.
Write down the natural resources available to your community
Communities have used natural re-sources such as the land, water, trees, wildlife and air for centuries. In many cases communities have even mined minerals such as copper
SARW has started its capacity building progranmme of parliaments in Southern Africa using the resource barometer.